Crosvm runs on a variety of platforms with a significant amount of platform-specific code. Testing on all the supported platforms is crucial to keep crosvm healthy.

Types of tests

Unit Tests

Unit tests are your standard rust tests embedded with the rest of the code in src/ and wrapped in a #[cfg(test)] attribute.

Unit tests cannot make any guarantees on the runtime environment. Avoid doing the following in unit tests:

  • Avoid kernel features such as io_uring or userfaultfd, which may not be available on all kernels.
  • Avoid functionality that requires privileges (e.g. CAP_NET_ADMIN)
  • Avoid spawning threads or processes
  • Avoid accessing kernel devices
  • Avoid global state in unit tests

This allows us to execute unit tests for any platform using emulators such as qemu-user-static or wine64.

Documentation tests

Rust's documentation tests can be used to provide examples as part of the documentation that is verified by CI.

Documentation tests are slow and not run as part of the usual workflows, but can be run locally with:

./tools/presubmit doc_tests

Integration tests

Cargo has native support for integration testing. Integration tests are written just like unit tests, but live in a separate directory at tests/.

Integration tests guarantee that the test has privileged access to the test environment. They are only executed when a device-under-test (DUT) is specified when running tests:

./tools/run_tests --dut=vm|host

End To End (E2E) tests

End to end tests live in the e2e_tests crate. The crate provides a framework to boot a guest with crosvm and execut commands in the guest to validate functionality at a high level.

E2E tests are executed just like integration tests. By giving nextest's filter expressions, you can run a subset of the tests.

# Run all e2e tests
./tools/run_tests --dut=vm --filter-expr 'package(e2e_tests)'
# Run e2e tests whose name contains the string 'boot'.
./tools/run_tests --dut=vm --filter-expr 'package(e2e_tests) and test(boot)'

Downstream Product tests

Each downstream product that uses crosvm is performing their own testing, e.g. ChromeOS is running high level testing of its VM features on ChromeOS hardware, while AOSP is running testing of their VM features on AOSP hardware.

Upstream crosvm is not involved in these tests and they are not executed in crosvm CI.

Parallel test execution

Crosvm tests are executed in parallel, each test case in its own process via cargo nextest.

This requires tests to be cautious about global state, especially integration tests which interact with system devices.

If you require exclusive access to a device or file, you have to use file-based locking to prevent access by other test processes.

Platorms tested

The platforms below can all be tested using tools/run_tests -p $platform. The table indicates how these tests are executed:

PlatformBuildUnit TestsIntegration TestsE2E Tests
x86_64 (linux)
aarch64 (linux)✅ (qemu-user1)✅ (qemu2)
armhf (linux)✅ (qemu-user1)
mingw643 (linux)🚧🚧 (wine64)
mingw643 (windows)🚧🚧🚧

Crosvm CI will use the same configuration as tools/run_tests.


qemu-aarch64-static or qemu-arm-static translate instructions into x86 and executes them on the host kernel. This works well for unit tests, but will fail when interacting with platform specific kernel features.


run_tests will launch a VM for testing in the background. This VM is using full system emulation, which causes tests to be slow. Also not all aarch64 features are properly emulated, which prevents us from running e2e tests.


Windows builds of crosvm are a work in progress. Some tests are executed via wine64 on linux